Regular-Expression

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Beschreibung

Reguläre Ausdrücke sind Muster, mit denen man den Aufbau von Zeichenketten beschreibt.

Characters

Ausdruck Bedeutung
x The character x
\\ The backslash character
\0n The character with octal value 0n (0 <= n <= 7)
\0nn The character with octal value 0nn (0 <= n <= 7)
\0mnn The character with octal value 0mnn (0 <= m <= 3, 0 <= n <= 7)
\xhh The character with hexadecimal value 0xhh
\uhhhh The character with hexadecimal value 0xhhhh
\t The tab character ('\u0009')
\n The newline (line feed) character ('\u000A')
\r The carriage-return character ('\u000D')
\f The form-feed character ('\u000C')
\a The alert (bell) character ('\u0007')
\e The escape character ('\u001B')
\cx The control character corresponding to x

Character classes

Ausdruck Bedeutung
[abc] a, b, or c (simple class)
[^abc] Any character except a, b, or c (negation)
[a-zA-Z] a through z or A through Z, inclusive (range)
[a-d[m-p]] a through d, or m through p: [a-dm-p] (union)
[a-z&&[def]] d, e, or f (intersect1)
[a-z&&[^bc]] a through z, except for b and c: [ad-z] (subtraction)
[a-z&&[^m-p]] a through z, and not m through p: [a-lq-z](subtraction)


Predefined character classes

Ausdruck Bedeutung
. Any character
\d A digit: [0-9]
\D A non-digit: [^0-9]
\s A whitespace character: [ \t\n\x0B\f\r]
\S A non-whitespace character: [^\s]
\w A word character: [a-zA-Z_0-9]
\W A non-word character: [^\w]


POSIX character classes (US-ASCII only)

Ausdruck Bedeutung
\p{Lower} A lower-case alphabetic character: [a-z]
\p{Upper} An upper-case alphabetic character:[A-Z]
\p{ASCII} All ASCII:[\x00-\x7F]
\p{Alpha} An alphabetic character:[\p{Lower}\p{Upper}]
\p{Digit} A decimal digit: [0-9]
\p{Alnum} An alphanumeric character:[\p{Alpha}\p{Digit}]
\p{Punct} }~
\p{Graph} A visible character: [\p{Alnum}\p{Punct}]
\p{Print} A printable character: [\p{Graph}]
\p{Blank} A space or a tab: [ \t]
\p{Cntrl} A control character: [\x00-\x1F\x7F]
\p{XDigit} A hexadecimal digit: [0-9a-fA-F]
\p{Space} A whitespace character: [ \t\n\x0B\f\r]


Classes for Unicode blocks and categories

Ausdruck Bedeutung
\p{InGreek} A character in the Greek block (simple block)
\p{Lu} An uppercase letter (simple category)
\p{Sc} A currency symbol
\P{InGreek} Any character except one in the Greek block (negation)
[\p{L}&&[^\p{Lu}]] Any letter except an uppercase letter (subtraction)


Boundary matchers

Ausdruck Bedeutung
^ The beginning of a line
$ The end of a line
\b A word boundary
\B A non-word boundary
\A The beginning of the input
\G The end of the previous match
\Z The end of the input but for the final terminator, if any
\z The end of the input


Greedy quantifiers

Ausdruck Bedeutung
X? X, once or not at all
X* X, zero or more times
X+ X, one or more times
X{n} X, exactly n times
X(n,} X, at least n times
X{n,m} X, at least n but not more than m times


Reluctant quantifiers

Ausdruck Bedeutung
X?? X, once or not at all
X*? X, zero or more times
X+? X, one or more times
X{n}? X, exactly n times
X(n,}? X, at least n times
X{n,m}? X, at least n but not more than m times


Possessive quantifiers

Ausdruck Bedeutung
X?+ X, once or not at all
X*+ X, zero or more times
X++ X, one or more times
X{n}+ X, exactly n times
X(n,}+ X, at least n times
X{n,m}+ X, at least n but not more than m times

Logical operators

Ausdruck Bedeutung
XY X followed by Y
Y Either X or Y
(X) X, as a capturing group

Back references

Ausdruck Bedeutung
$n Whatever the n-th capturing group matched

Quotation

Ausdruck Bedeutung
\ Nothing, but quotes the following character
\Q Nothing, but quotes all characters until \E
\E Nothing, but ends quoting started by \Q

Special constructs (non-capturing)

Ausdruck Bedeutung
(?:X) X, as a non-capturing group
(?idmsux-idmsux) Nothing, but turns match flags on - off
(?idmsux-idmsux:X) X, as a non-capturing group with the given flags on - off
(?=X) X, via zero-width positive lookahead
(?!X) X, via zero-width negative lookahead
(?<=X) X, via zero-width negative lookahead
(?>X) X, as an independent, non-capturing group

Embedded flag expressions

Ausdruck Bedeutung
(?u) Pattern.UNICODE_CASE
(?s) Pattern.DOTALL
(?m) Pattern.MULTILINE
(?i) Pattern.CASE_INSENSITIVE
(?x) Pattern.COMMENTS
(?d) Pattern.UNIX_LINES
--- Pattern.CANON_EQ (not available)
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